Samuel Hahnemann

He created the basic principles of homeopathy. The word homeopathy comes from the Greek hómoios- ὅμοιος- "like-" + páthos πάθος "suffering".

Hippocrates of Kos

Hippocrates (Kos 460 BC - Larissa 377 BC) was an ancient Greek physician and is referred to as the father of Western medicine in recognition of his lasting contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of Medicine. Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits.



Hippocrates of Kos

Hippocrates is not only the father of Western medicine, but also a philosopher and a humanist.

Samuel Hahnemann

Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
His research led him to the principle of homeopathy, similia similibus curentur ("like cures like"), according to which a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure that disease in sick people.
He first published an article about the homeopathic approach in a German-language medical journal in 1796.


Aπάντηση στο δημοσίευμα του περιοδικού "THE LANCET" για την ομοιοπαθητική

Are the clinical effects of homeopathy a placebo effect, an answer to "THE LANCET" editor. Σεπτέμβριος 2005

Τον Αύγουστο του 2005, δημοσιεύτηκε στο Ιατρικό περιοδικό "The Lancet" μία μελέτη που παρουσίαζε την Ομοιοπαθητική αναποτελεσματική. Η μελέτη είχε δεκάδες ανακρίβρειες, κακό σχεδιασμό όσον αφορά στην Ομοιοπαθητική, και συνέκρινε ανόμοια πράγματα, δηλαδή μελέτες κλασσικής ιατρικής και ομοιοπαθητικής. Απο τις δεύτερες, είχαν παραληφθεί όσες είχαν καλύτερα αποτελέσματα.... Παρόλα αυτά παραδέχονταν ότι οι Ομοιοπαθητικές μελέτες είχαν καλύτερο βαθμό αξιοπιστίας. Το βασικό πρόβλημα της δημοσίευσης, όπως θα δείτε στην απάντηση που στείλαμε, είναι ότι από τις φερόμενες μελέτες Ομοιοπαθητικής, μόνο ελάχιστο ποσοστό ήταν σύφμωνα με τους νόμους της κλασσικής Ομοιοπαθητικής, δηλαδή ένα φάρμακο, κάθε φορά για κάθε ασθενή.
Υπόνοιες μίας ολομέτωπης σχεδιασμένης επίθεσης κατά της Ομοιοπαθητικής στο συγκεκριμένο τεύχος, κινούν αφενός η αναφορά στο editorial του εκδότη του περιοδικού για το "τέλος της Ομοιοπαθητικής" - λες και αρκεί μία κακοσχεδιαμένη μελέτη για να κρίνει μία επιστήμη μισού αιώνα- αφετέρου η αντιδεοντολογική κριτική κατά της υπευθύνου του Παγκόσμιου Οργανισμού Υγείας που μερικούς μήνες πριν είχε αναφερθεί θετικά στην Ομοιοπαθητική.
Παρακάτω θα δείτε την απάντηση που στείλαμε στο περιοδικό. Το Lancet αρνήθηκε να δημοσιεύσει την απάντηση στέλνοντάς μας ένα μήνυμα με τα εξής τρία ψέματα: Πρώτον ότι χάσαμε την χρονική προθεσμία, δεύτερον ότι αναφερόμασταν σε περιπτώσεις ασθενών και τρίτον ότι ξεπεράσαμε τις επιτρεπόνενες λέξεις. Τίποτα από ολα αυτά δεν ίσχυε βέβαια, καθιστώντας το περιοδικό ή αναξιόπιστο, ή πρεσβευτή της συμφέρουσας άποψης της Ιατρικής. Δείτε παρακάτω την απάντηση που δεν δημοσιεύτηκε ποτέ!

Letter to the Editor

Dear editor,

We read carefully the article "Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy” written by Shang A. et al, (1) and some points should be clarified.

It is well known that specific technical difficulties are emerging when a comparative study of trials of homeopathy and allopathy is undertaken (2).This is due to the fact that the basic rule of Classical Hahnemannian Homeopathy - only one remedy for each patient at any given time- is not taken into consideration in most of the studies. Unfortunately, there are other practices that have been developed which are opposite to this basic principle of Homeopathy, resulting in confusion in assessing and validation of clinical trials.

Only a specific (personal) homeopathic remedy can stimulate each human organism at every time. The response of a specific homeopathic remedy is characterized by reactions that are completely different from placebo. (3)

“Clinical homeopathy” described by the authors of the article as the administration of a single remedy for a disease, and “complex homeopathy” as the administration of a mixture of several different remedies to a patient, are approaches completely different to the principles of Classical Hahnemannian Homeopathy.

On the other hand, Isopathy is a different type of intervention, than Homeopathy, that also should not be included.

From the above we can argue that the above selections of trials involved in this study, have led to erroneous results.

In addition, in Classical Homeopathic treatment, there are also different rules of intervention according to the level of health of each patient, (4) and therefore some studies of Classical Homeopathy, were severely criticized in the past (5).

A comparative study in medical science has more specific weight concerning the promotion of scientific truth. The conduction of the specific comparative study is unfortunately biased from the beginning, by analyzing heterogeneous trials under the term “ trials of homeopathy” while they are not at all, according to the above definitions.

The fact that in this comparative study the word “Homeopathy” has been used to select trials from various data bases, does not justify the ignorance of the basic theory of Hahnemannian homeopathy.


  • Shang A, Huwiler-Muntener K, Nortey L, et al. Are the clinical effects of homeopathy placebo effects? Comparative study of placebo-controlled trials of homoeopathy and allopathy. Lancet 2005;366:726-732.
  • Oberbaum M, Vithoulkas G, Van Haselen R. Clinical trials of classical homeopathy: reflections on appropriate research designs. J Altern Complement Med. 2003;9:105-11.
  • Vithoulkas G. The Science of Homeopathy, Grove Press Ed. New York 1981, ISBN:0-8021-5120-5 (pbk.)
  • Vithoulkas G. Levels of Health according to Classical Homeopathic Theory in: A Strategy for Research in Homeopathy, European Committee for Homeopathy: Assessing the Value of Homeopathy for Health Care in Europe,3 rd Edition-2005.
  • Vithoulkas G. Homeopathic treatment of chronic headache: a critique. Homeopathy. 2002;91:32-4.

George Vithoulkas and Spiros Kivellos

International Academy of Classical Homeopathy
Alonissos, Greece.
Tel: 0030 24240 65142
Fax: 0030 24240 65147

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